Desain Grafis Indonesia

Desain Grafis Indonesia

Fostering understanding among Indonesian graphic designers and its juncture in art, design, culture and society

Napak Tilas Desain Grafis Indonesia

“… it is necessary for designers to have the grounding provided by historical knowledge to avoid reinvention and pagiarism.” – Steven Heller, Graphic Design History

1600-an

The art of printing was introduced into the archipelago in the 1600s. The two factors that brought about the establishment of the printing press under Dutch rule were:

• To multiply the legal regulations contained in official proclamations on a large scale by printing them, since this saved both time and money.
• The Dutch Reformed Church, to pursue its missionary work among the natives, had urgent need of books and tracts for educational work, while one of its chief aims was a vernacular translation of the Holy Scriptures.

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1744

Iklan pertama di Jakarta (baca: Batavia) muncul pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1744 bersamaan dengan terbitnya surat kabar pertama oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Iklan itu, awalnya adalah sebuah berita yang ditulis indah dengan tangan oleh Jan Pieterzoen Coen (Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda tahun 1619-1629), dengan judul Memorie De Nouvelles, yang ditujukan kepada pemerintah setempat di Ambon untuk melawan aktivitas perdagangan Portugis. Tulisan itu kemudian dipasang sebagai iklan oleh karyawan sekretariat kantor Gubernur Jenderal Imhoff, Jourdans di surat kabar Bataviaasche Nouvelles.

Sumber: “Sejarah Periklanan Indonesia 1744-1984″, Bab I, Persatuan Perusahaan Periklanan Indonesia.

 

1825

The deployment of advertising to promote was also used by merchants to bolster up their sales. In 1825, advertisements of traditional medicines were found in the pages of Tjabaja Siang, a local newspaper in Minahasa. Tjabaja Siang was the first publisher owned by the native people. Its advertisements were also published in some media in The Netherlands.

1870

First Brochures
The growth of advertising during the Dutch Indies period had a lot to do with the growth of the economy in the region. In 1870, many Dutch investors came to invest their money in plantation and mine industries. The situation forced them to form a research foundation in order to extend and accumulate their capital. Suikersyndicaat, a sugar association, was one of them. They were the first organization that made promotional brochures to attract prospective investors. Another organization was the Javaasche Bank which also used printed materials as the media of promotion. The brochures and booklets were mostly printed by G.C.T. van Dorp & Co, which was located in Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya.

1893

Pemerintah Hindia Belanda mendirikan Percetakan Negara di Jakarta, pada waktu itu yang terbesar di Asia. Sementara itu di seluruh Indonesia sudah terdapat 6500 percetakan, 2700 di antaranya terdapat di Jakarta. Industri grafika dan dunia penerbitan di Indonesia pada waktu itu sudah mulai menyadari pentingnya desain grafis.

Laribu Meyoko, sekretaris Percetakan Negara: “Mengapa desain itu penting? Barang cetakan sama seperti manusia: penampilan lahiriahnya yang penting. Untuk memberi kesan yang baik, untuk menarik perhatian, untuk memberi kepercayaan. Desain grafis di Indonesia mempunyai masa depan gemilang.”

Sumber: Buku “Nederland Indonesia, 1945-1995, Suatu Pertalian Budaya”, [Z]OO produkties, Den Haag, 1995, hal. 165.

1901

N.V. Tjong Hok Long was the first ad agency founded in 1901 by the Chinese. In the beginning they created many ads for comic books which were also printed by the agency. Later, they created ads for other products such as batiks, soaps, cigarettes, and medicines. The ads they produced were mostly handwritten and very plain.

1905

In 1905, Aneta, a news agency was founded. The agency had its own advertising department and was very advanced not only in facilities but also in the manpower that came from Europe. Some of its creative people were F. Van Bemmel, Is. Van Mens and Cor van Deutekom who did advertisements for big clients such as Bataafche Petroleum in Surabaya, General Motors and Koninklijke Pakevaart Maatschappij in Batavia.

Pre-Japanese Occupation

The world economic depression in 1929-1930 had a big influence on the advertising industry in the Dutch Indies. Many foreign companies had to stop their campaigns and big agencies lost a lot of money. But many smaller agencies still survived because most of their clients came from small industries like cigarettes, soaps and powders. The situation got better in the years 1930-1942. Industries were back in shape. Many products were imported from Europe and US like Ford cars, Philips radios, and several other brands from watches, milk to health products. Many advertising agencies were keen again. Some of them even started to apply a ‘new method’ to their ads which is now called product/brand positioning. Success Advertising, for example, positioned its client, Philips, as a brand for economical products. And so was the Listerine ad, which positioned itself as the toothpaste to cure any dental problems. The ad used a Caucasian male model, smiling widely, showing his healthy, clean, white teeth.

Until 1940, manufactured products dominated the Dutch Indies market. Most of them were everyday products or home appliances imported from Europe, Japan and US.

Source: Sejarah Periklanan Indonesia

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1980

Pada tanggal 16-24 Juni 1980 di Pusat Kebudayaan Belanda Erasmus Huis, jalan Menteng Raya 25, Jakarta diselenggarakan pameran desain grafis oleh tiga desainer grafis Indonesia: Gauri Nasution, Didit Chris Purnomo dan Hanny Kardinata, bertajuk “Pameran Rancangan Grafis ‘80 Hanny, Gauri, Didit”. Pameran ini membawa misi utama memperkenalkan profesi desainer grafis ke masyarakat luas serta tercatat sebagai pameran desain grafis pertama di Indonesia yang diadakan oleh desainer-desainer grafis Indonesia (“Pameran Rancangan Grafis Hanny, Gauri, Didit – Mau Merubah Dunia”, Agus Dermawan T, Kompas, 25 Juni 1980, hal. 6). Pameran ini menampilkan bukan saja hasil akhir produk desain grafis (logo, tipografi, layout majalah, ilustrasi, poster, sampul buku, sampul kaset dll), tetapi juga proses kreatif serta proses cetaknya.

Pameran Rancangan Grafis ‘80 Hanny, Gauri, Didit. Ki-ka: Didit, Hanny dan Gauri.

1980

Ikatan Perancang Grafis Indonesia (IPGI) terbentuk pada tanggal 25 April 1980 dan diresmikan pada tanggal 24 September 1980 bersamaan dengan diselenggarakannya sebuah pameran besar bertajuk “Grafis ‘80” di Jakarta.

Badan Pendiri yang terdiri dari 9 orang: Sadjiroen, Sutarno, Suprapto Martosuhardjo, SJH Damais, Bambang Purwanto, Chairman, Wagiono, Didit Chris Purnomo dan J Leonardo N merumuskan program kerja dan membentuk pengurus sementara dengan susunan sebagai berikut:
Ketua: Wagiono
Wakil Ketua: Karnadi
Sekretaris 1: Didit Chris Purnomo
Sekretaris 2: J Leonardo N
Bendahara: Hanny Kardinata
Dibantu beberapa koordinator bidang:
Pameran: FX Harsono, S Prinka
Publikasi dan Buletin: Tjahjono Abdi
Hubungan Masyarakat: Agus Dermawan T
Dokumentasi dan Perpustakaan: Helmi Sophiaan
Pendidikan dan Ceramah: Hanny Kardinata

Perjalanan IPGI selanjutnya bisa diikuti pada “Sejarah IPGI-Upaya Menumbuhkan Apresiasi”.

1990-an

SEKILAS KOMIK INDONESIA
Since 1996 the ‘National Comic Week’ has presented a yearly celebration of formally published (that is, those with ‘permission’ and slick presentations) Indonesian-made comics. In other words, it glorifies bad marketing, lack of distribution, limitations, translations, Western copies, censorship, ideological repetition, and the ‘Golden Age’ (legend and silat comics from the 60s and 70s). In 1999 local independent or underground comics were first permitted to appear in the festivities. Independents are those comics created by admirers of the art or those who simply choose to express themselves through the medium. These mini comics are ‘self-published’, meaning they are photocopied, distributed amongst friends, and occasionally sold in local shops. Illegal prior to May 1998, by the 1999 Comic Week, fifteen ‘studios’ or groups from Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya and Denpasar were actively making and self-publishing comics. With the idealism of the moment, mixed with the thrill of legitimacy and finally seeing their work in the same exhibition space as the great Indonesian komikus (Jan Mintaraga, RA Kosasih and others), Wahyoe Soegijanto, head of the Indonesian Comic Community (MKI) claimed great things for indie comics – while maintaining New Order discourse: “We’re moving ahead step by step to advance Indonesian comics as our contribution to the development of Indonesia”. By the 2000 exhibition, however, these independents were already reduced in number and confined to one corner of the hall.

What is so important about comics? For one, Indonesians love them and have a long, fond history of growing up with them. But if comics mirror the environment in which they appear, the ‘Golden Age’ was a time of heroes and legends, whereas now Indonesia is an occupied nation. Very few komikus have found their own voice under reformasi. The vast majority of comics on display at the 2000 Expo this past February were copies of western comics in terms of art, story, design, location, characterization, and even language.

Rendra had once described freedom of expression as a reflection of the artist’s degree of contact with the people, life, and nature, an ability to express the truth, or soul of society. So why are most Indonesian comics utterly removed from any direct contact with the everyday world? With reformasi, comics have the potential to reflect social and political life way beyond other types of communication. Where are these models of contemporary culture we would expect to see in such a genre? Now let’s go back to that little indie corner of the exhibition and see what comics look like when freed from the stranglehold of slick presentation or censorship.

First, there were the classics. Self-published comics had been a trend on campuses since 1994. By 1996 groups of Yogyakarta-based art students compiled their efforts into Core Comic, Komik Selingkuh, Kiri Komik, Petak Umpet Komik, and Komik Haram out of love for the medium, the need for self-expression, and in a vain attempt to revive a much missed local tradition. For the most part, and precisely like indies anywhere else in the world, they remain economically utterly unsuccessful. Like indie artists elsewhere too, many are self-conscious about presenting their work in public, evidenced by opening statements that justify their efforts as socially useful, “Jakarta the hot and filthy can be transformed into a comic!!” (Komec Perjoeangan, 1999, Rudi H.), or avoid criticism by referring to the comic as garbage and without meaning (Rampok, 1999, by Emte).

The indie theme in the pre-Reformasi era was predominantly despair. One of the earliest (1996) in the group comic output was Komik Selingkuh (Deception). This comic-cum-manual is entirely devoted to deception with the ultimate goal of luring someone into sexual engagement. Success or failure both lead to the same ending: a fight with the wife, financial debt, unwanted children, divorce, misery, suicide, and the comfort and joy of imagining and/or doing the whole sex scene again. Regardless of the consequences, sex as the reward for a good deception heavily outweighs the negatives, at least in terms of its presentational build-up within the comic.

Core Comics (1996) self-published a series called Berteman dengan Anjing (Befriending Dogs). Each volume contains compilations that conform to various dog themes, nearly all violent: dogs as mad scientists, dog heaven where dogs curse at and abuse people, space dogs fall in love with earth women, and others too weird to identify. Tanggaku Kirik (My Neighbor is a Puppy) compiles stories based in dog worlds, where humans are the beasts, and dog dreams, aspirations for love, to become human, or to just survive. As a whole, nearly every story has a sad ending where man beats dog or dog aspires to greatness and fails.

Most of the New Order era indies share this pessimism, while, and totally unlike indie comics in Australia or the States, avoiding any sense of a self within the social environment. By 1999, however, indies are beginning to show more autobiographical work, based on ‘the material at hand’ turned into a story or just a simple exposé of life. Not all of it is depressing or pornographic either as seen in the Komec Perjoeangan by Rudi H. His inscription reads “Indonesia pancen Oke Lho” (Indonesia is definitely OK, you know), and the comic reveals tidbits of the young man’s life and experiences that are thoroughly normal and ‘definitely OK’.

Nowhere to be seen at the 2000 Comic Expo was the work of the Yogya-based comic and organizational wizard, Bambang Toko. Bambang was the organizer for Core Comic and later moved to the far more interesting Apotik Komik. While extremely active makers of comics as autobiography, full of word plays and local trends, Apotik Komik also has taken comics to the streets through their humorous posters and by decorating walls and billboards. Their collective works have developed a good balance between telling a familiar story and using humor as a way to promote thought and different perspectives. Yet, they, and all the other Yogya komikus chose to boycott the 2000 Comic Expo. Hopefully, by the 2001 Expo, komikus, publishers, and the Indonesian public will make more effort to look forward instead of back and support a more lively, relevant local comic industry.

Source: “Independence and idealism through Comics” Inside Indonesia No 62. July-September 2000. Dutch translation appears in Stripschrift. Jaargang 32 – nummer 10 (327).

2005

Pada tanggal 8 September 2005 dalam acara “Gathering and Talk Show-It’s Graphic Designers United!” di arena FGD Expo 2005, Jakarta Convention Center, diterbitkan Memorandum ADGI kepada Gauri Nasution, Danton Sihombing, Hastjarjo B. Wibowo dan Mendiola B. Wiryawan untuk mempersiapkan Kongres ADGI dalam waktu 6 bulan.

Pada bulan Oktober 2005 para penerima mandat membentuk Tim Revitalisasi ADGI yang terdiri dari 14 orang desainer, yaitu; Andi S. Boediman, Ardian Elkana, Danton Sihombing, Divina Nathalia, Djoko Hartanto, Gauri Nasution, Hastjarjo B. Wibowo, Hermawan Tanzil, Ilma D. Noe’man, Irvan A. Noe’man, Lans Brahmantyo, Mendiola B. Wiryawan, Nia Karlina dan Sakti Makki. Tim ini bekerja selama 5 bulan untuk merumuskan platform “ADGI Baru”. Berdasarkan evaluasi terhadap kinerja ADGI pada masa lalu dirumuskan branding platform Adgi baru yang kini hadir dengan deskripsi Indonesia Design Professionals Association .

2006

Pada tanggal 22 Februari 2006 sekitar 40 desainer menghadiri “Designer Gathering” di LeBoYe atas undangan tim 14 yang mencanangkan Revitalisasi ADGI. Tujuan pertemuan ini adalah untuk menghidupkan kembali asosiasi desainer yang sempat mati suri itu. Pertemuan malam itu menghasilkan logo baru Adgi serta rencana menggelar seminar pada bulan April 2006.

Setiap usulan dalam gathering dijadikan bahan diskusi dalam pertemuan-pertemuan Tim 14 sesudahnya, yang pada akhirnya menentukan fornat Adgi sebagai sebuah organisasi non-profit oriented yang berbentuk yayasan, yang berjuang bagi kepentingan anggotanya dan kemajuan desain nasional.

Pada tanggal 19 April 2006 bertempat di Ballroom Hotel Le Meridien, Jakarta diselenggarakan Kongres Adgi dimana terpilih formasi presidium yang terdiri dari 5 orang yaitu Andi S. Boediman, Danton Sihombing, Hastjarjo B. Wibowo, Hermawan Tanzil dan Lans Brahmantyo untuk mengemban tugas memimpin Adgi selama periode 1 tahun dengan mengusung tema “Unifying Spirits”. Implementasi gagasan desentralisasi telah melahirkan Adgi-Jakarta Chapter yang diketuai oleh Nico A.Pranoto dan Adgi-Surabaya Chapter yang diketuai oleh Yosua Alpha Buana.

Pada tanggal 16-30 Agustus 2006 Adgi menggelar pameran desain komunikasi visual “Petasan Grafis” di Galeri Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta dengan sub-judul “Pameran Nasionalisme Indonesia dalam Desain Komunikasi Visual”. Pameran yang dibuka oleh Menteri Perdagangan Mari Elka Pangestu itu diawali dengan pemutaran video perjalanan IPGI sebelum menjadi Adgi, disusul penyerahan penghargaan untuk ke-5 pemenang kompetisi “Ide Awards” (Penghargaan Nasional Akademik Desain Grafis). Kompetisi ini diadakan khusus untuk mahasiswa desain komunikasi visual yang mewakili institusi-institusi pendidikan desain di Indonesia yang terbagi atas 3 pilihan tema:
1. Kemasan makanan tradisional Indonesia, misalnya ekspolorasi kemasan dodol durian, tape ketan dsb., mulai dari brand identity dan seterusnya
2. Event, misalnya promosi tari-tarian daerah, resital gamelan dsb., mulai dari logo event dan sebagainya
3. Destination Branding, misalnya mengolah program komunikasi visual suatu tempat yang menarik di Indonesia (pantai, museum, tempat bersejarah dsb.).

Setelah melalui penilaian dewan juri yang terdiri dari Hanny Kardinata (Desainer Grafis Senior), Sita Subijakto (Headline Creative Communication), Ipong Purnomosidi (Kurator Bentara Budaya, Jakarta), Nirwan Dewanto (Budayawan) dan Seno Gumira Ajidarma (Budayawan), keluar sebagai pemenang adalah karya “Dolanpiade” dari Digital Studio, Jakarta (Dicky Mardona, Meliana Sari Hermanto, Octavia Subiyanto, Rifki Zulkarnain, Welly Caslin); “Peranakan Idealis” dari Institut Kesenian Jakarta (Irvan Mulia Ahmadi, Rahayu Pratiwi, Husin Alkaff, Muhammad Rizki Lazuardy); “Lurjuk” dari Universitas Kristen Petra, Surabaya (Aileen Halim, Ang Siau Fang, Selvy Hermawan); “Batik Illusion” dari Universitas Bina Nusantara (Adeline Ardine, Fredy Susanto, Nadya Kartika) serta “Moralitas Pers” dari Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta (Kezia Winarta Wahyuni Wijayati, Lia Anggraeni, Filina Vicentia, Tafrian).

2007

Pada hari Kamis, tanggal 19 April 2007 jam 09.00 s/d 13.00 WIB dilaksanakan Kongres Nasional Adgi kedua di gedung Galeri Nasional, Jakarta. Kongres dihadiri 45 peserta undangan yang terdiri dari praktisi (desainer) dan pendidik.

Kongres memutuskan dan menetapkan 4 agenda penting yaitu:
1. Penerimaan laporan pertanggungjawaban pengurus sebelumnya (presidium).
2. Penetapan draft AD/ART dan Kode Etik menjadi rancangan AD/ART dan Kode Etik untuk kemudian dihibahkan kepada pengurus mendatang untuk disempurnakan.
3. Pelantikan Dewan Penasehat yang terdiri dari: Gauri Nasution, Ign. Hermawan Tanzil, Irvan A. Noe’man, Iwan Ramelan, dan Wagiono Sunarto.
4. Pemilihan, dan pelantikan Ketua Umum Adgi untuk periode pengurusan 2007–2010 atau sesuai dengan ketentuan yang berlaku sesuai dengan yang tertera pada AD/ART yang telah disempurnakan. Dari 5 nama Calon Ketua Umum, terpilih satu dengan suara terbanyak yaitu sebanyak 27 suara adalah Danton Sihombing.

Selanjutnya, Danton Sihombing selaku Ketua Umum Adgi 2007-2010 telah menunjuk Mario Tetelepta sebagai Sekjen Adgi dan Irvan N. Suryanto sebagai Direktur Pengembangan dan Pemasaran Produk.

17-25 April 2007

“1001 Inspiration Design Festival”, sebuah acara berskala besar pertama di bidang komunikasi visual Indonesia (desain grafis, multimedia, animasi) yang diselenggarakan oleh majalah desain grafis Concept dan Digital Studio College. Acara yang digelar pada tanggal 17-25 April ini secara umum dipecah dalam dua bagian yaitu “Inspiration Light Up” (seminar kreatif menghadirkan pembicara luar dan dalam negeri, yang berlangsung 17-19 April di Crown Plaza Jakarta) dan Exhibition (memamerkan karya peserta kompetisi desain “1001 Cover Concept”, karya lulusan Digital Studio College, karya para desainer Inggris, serta acara hiburan lainnya), yang berlangsung 20-25 April di Senayan City Jakarta).

Sebagai bagian dari “1001 Inspiration Design Festival” majalah desain grafis Concept mengadakan kompetisi desain “1001 Cover Concept” yang bermaksud memecahkan rekor dunia ‘majalah dengan variasi cover terbanyak dalam satu edisi’. Kompetisi dengan hadiah terbesar sepanjang sejarah ini (hadiah utama sebuah mobil Chevrolet-Kalos) diadakan dengan tujuan untuk memberi kesempatan kepada para desainer muda Indonesia untuk ikut merasakan menjadi pemecah rekor bersama-sama.

Total karya yang masuk berjumlah lebih dari 1300 karya, yang setelah didata dan dipilah, ditentukan 1001 pemecah rekornya. Pada tahap berikutnya tim intern Concept menyeleksi 208 karya yang dinilai unggul. Ke 208 karya tersebut disaring lagi hingga menjadi 101 semifinalis untuk kemudian dinilai oleh 5 juri yang terdiri dari Hanny Kardinata (Desainer Grafis Senior), Hermawan Tanzil (Creative Director LeBoYe yang mewakili Adgi-Indonesia Design Professionals Association), Mendiola B Wiryawan (Creative Director Mendiola Design yang mewakili FDGI-Forum Desain Grafis Indonesia), Vera Tarjono (Art Director Majalah Concept) dan Stefanus Aristo Kristandyo (Marketing Manager General Motor yang mewakili GM sebagai sponsor utama).

Penjurian yang berlangsung di Ruang Pamer Seni Rupa-Institut Kesenian Jakarta itu memilih 11 finalis, yang kemudian dipersempit hingga menjadi tiga pemenang, masing-masing sebagai juara pertama Daud Budi Surya Nugraha, juara kedua Marishka Cempaka Dewi dan juara ketiga Agra Satria.

The winner of 1001 Concept Cover magazine, Daud Budi Surya.

14 November 2008

Majalah kreatif berbasis desain grafis “Versus” edisi #1 terbit dan mengadakan soft-launching pada acara Bedah Buku “Layout Dasar & Penerapannya” di Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta. Majalah “Versus” dikelola oleh Hanny Kardinata (Chairman), Caroline F Soenarko (Business Director), Ismiaji Cahyono (Chief Editor), Ronald Holoang (Business Development Manager), Berti Alia Bahaduri (Managing Editor), Celvie Toramaya (Creative Director), Mario Utama (Graphic Designer), Bima Nurin Aulan (Graphic Designer), Intan Febrianni (Workflow Manager), Diana Soetrisno (Account Executive) dan Novi Rachmawati (Finance and General Affair).

To be continued

Next Article »

COMMENTS

  1. Blog Anda cukup menarik. Fokus ngobrolin tentang graphic desain. Ga ngalor ngidul, teruskan mas blog seperti ini. Saya termasuk orang yang butuh blog seperti ini.

    ees

  2. Terimakasih. Kami hanya berusaha merekam jejak desain grafis di Indonesia. Siapa pun yang memiliki data yang relevan kami persilahkan untuk mengisi situs ini.

  3. Inspiring! Banyak informasi “indah”.

  4. terima kasih… :-)

  5. weleh-weleh… ini nih baru namanya informasi…
    coba misal waktu itu diarsipkan gambarnya ya…

  6. saya sangat terkesan dengan penulisan ulang sejarah design grafis di Indonesia ini,… semoga dengan sejarah yang telah berkobar selama masa tersebut dapat menjadi motivasi bagi semua orang bahwa Seorang Designer Grafis Sangat Layak untuk dihargai,…

    your regard

    (tukang setting undangan dan iklan)

  7. terima kasih, kesan dan pesan anda ini besar artinya bagi kami untuk menyelesaikan penulisan sejarah dgi.

  8. mas, ngomongin dunia grafis jakarta, udah sedemikian hebatnya..nah, apakah desain grafis indonesia jg akan seperti pembangunan di indonesia yg ga merata? kiprahnya ADGI utk kesitu apa mas?

  9. Message dari Gadisha (cew.nidjiholic@gmail.com)

    Thanks a lot
    I realy need it..

  10. Wah… luar biasa…… mas hanny, teruskan perjuanganmu perkembangan desain grafis Indonesia sangat membutuhkan karya-karyamu. Jadilah sejarawa Desain Grafis Indonesia………

  11. terima kasih papadefung… :-) mari bergandengtangan menuliskan sejarah desain garfis indonesia.

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